
Given: a, b, c and d are real numbers, variables, or expressions such that b, c, d ≠ 0.
Property: 
Example: 
1. Signs and Fractions: 

The placement of a negative sign can be in front of the fraction, in the numerator or in the denominator. 

2. Equivalent Fractions:

"Cross Multiply"  In a proportion, the product of the means equals the product of the extremes. 
3. Adding & Subtracting:
Get a common denominator.

You can use the product of the two denominators as the common denominator if you cannot find a smaller common denominator. 
4. Multiplying:

Just multiply through the top and multiply through the bottom. 
5. Dividing:

Invert the second term, and multiply.

6. Simplify: Search for the largest factor that will divide evenly into both the numerator and denominator. It may be the case that the fraction is already in its simplest form. 
Writing all of these steps is not necessary. Just be careful not to make a careless mistake. 
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